Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, end-stage renal disease, and peripheral vascular disease.

Therefore, health care professionals must not only identify and treat patients with hypertension but also promote a healthy lifestyle and preventive strategies to decrease the prevalence of hypertension in the general population.

Diagnosis and classification

Normal – Systolic lower than 120, diastolic lower than 80 mmHg

Prehypertension – Systolic 120-139, diastolic 80-99 mmHg

Stage 1 – Systolic 140-159 or diastolic 90-99

Stage 2 – Systolic equal to or more than 160 or diastolic equal to or more than 100

Based on the average of 2 or more readings taken at each of 2 or more visits after initial screening


Approximately 20% of the world´s adults are estimated to have hypertension. The prevalence dramatically increases in patients older than 60 years.


90-95% can not identify the etiology. A small percentage of patients (2-10%) have a secondary cause such as abnormality of renal, vascular, endocrine and adrenal system.


Consult your doctor for medical treatment and consider lifestyle modifications include the following:

1. Lose weight if overweight.
2. Limit alcohol intake.
3. Increase aerobic activity (30-45 min most days of the week).
4. Reduce sodium intake.
5. Stop smoking.
6. reduce intake of dietary saturated fat and cholesterol.
7. Avoid stress.